Functional neurobiology

Neuroscenter Clinic

Located in Barcelona and Girona

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Neuroscenter Clinic

Located in Barcelona and Girona


The biological healing process

At Neuroscenter we incorporate an Integrative approach, relying on the latest diagnostic advances and the latest pharmacological therapies in Neurology, together with a Neurobiological and Neurophysiological vision of the main symptoms and pathologies.

The Unit is directed by Dr. Cruz Velarde, Neurologist and Director of the Institute of Functional Neurobiology Neuronae.

We study different functions and metabolic routes: oxidative states, chronic inflammation, toxins, alterations in detoxification processes, energy and enzymatic cycles (ATP, Krebs ..), alteration of gene expression (epigenetics), orthomolecular nutrition, study of neurotransmitters as well as alterations functional, brain connection and interrelation of the different physiological systems.

Who can benefit from this neurobiological approach?

Anyone suffering from ADHD, Autism, Child learning disorders, Learning and behaviour problems, Fibromyalgia, Depression and Anxiety, Personality disorders and OCD, Insomnia, Alzheimer’s. Parkinson’s, Stroke.

Energy Metabolism (Krebs and Mitochondrial Cycles)

Organic acids are metabolic intermediaries of the biochemical processes of energy production, detoxification, neurotransmitter breakdown, amino acid separation or intestinal microbial activity.

It provides information on metabolites of oxalates, metabolites of citric acid cycle, neurotransmitters, also of fatty acids and ketones. Nutritional indicators such as Q10, vitamin C, vitamin B12, B6, B5, B2. Indicators of mitochondrial functioning. Different neurological disorders often excrete various organic acids abnormally.

OrthoMolecular Nutrition

Vitamins, trace elements and proteins are essential for a good neuronal function. Certain deficiencies in these components can influence the physiology of many cell functions and organs, including the brain.

Hormonal metabolism: Thyroid and Cortisol-DHEA

Thyroid metabolism influences our energetic and emotional state. Thyroid hormone resistance, T3 conversion disturbances, rT3 conversion. There are nutritional deficiencies such as the lack of Zinc, Selenium, and iron, which when treated, the patient converts T3 correctly. There are also medications that prevent conversion, and that when withdrawn or replaced allow free T3 to be produced spontaneously. Stress is the normal physiological response to stimuli that threaten or challenge our body. All these processes are very precisely self-regulated by hormonal axes.

Neurotoxics and Mineralogram

Nowadays we have between 400 and 700 times more heavy metals, free radicals and toxins in our bodies than the generation that lived 40 years ago. We evaluate toxic elements for the body such as mercury, aluminum, lead, etc. These elements within the human body can interfere with the essential balance of nutrients and with the formation of essential components in the nervous and metabolic system. Plasma levels of certain minerals and trace elements do not reflect the actual cellular concentration in the tissues. Through a hair study we analyze cellular and toxic nutritional level.

Brain Nutritional Status / Food Intolerance IgG / Histamine

Study of fatty acids in erythrocytes, IgG 200 foods, study of histamine in urine 24h and studies of DAO enzyme activity.

Chronic Neuroinflammation and Neuroimmunology

With different diseases and neurological syndromes, such as childhood neurodevelopmental disorders or neurodegenerative diseases, appears a state of chronic neuroinflammation that causes functional alterations and neuronal loss. Abnormalities in the response system would produce an alteration of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL4, IL6, IL10, IINF alpha, TNF, IL2rs, among others, alterations in lymphocyte subpopulations, serum protein profiles, plasma markers of chronic inflammation.

Dysbiosis and Intestinal Permeability

The absorption of nutrients depends on a balanced microflora and on the conditions of the intestine. In a permeable intestine, the walls are so swollen that they allow the passage of toxins into the blood, unbalancing the immune, metabolic, hormonal and mental systems. Intestinal dysbiosis and imbalances of the microbiota favor systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation, as well as neuro-activation states, through increased intestinal permeability and stimulation of the afferent enteric nervous system. Protective, immunomodulatory, mucoprotective, proteolytic and yeast microflora are assessed by means of a functional study of the intestinal microbiota.

Detoxification Study

Liver detoxification is the result of two enzymatic processes: phase I and phase II. Phase I enzymes transform toxic products into more accessible intermediate forms for phase II. These intermediate forms are much more chemically active and therefore more toxic. Phase I involves a large group of enzymes, which together are called cytochrome P450. An important side effect of this phase is the production of free radicals. Phase II enzymes transform intermediate products through different pathways, with the aim of neutralizing them or facilitating their elimination in urine, feces, or sweat.

Alterations in liver detoxification. A very active or fast phase 1 generates an increase in intermediate toxic products and free radicals. In the same way, a slow phase II gives rise to the accumulation of intermediate toxic products. Consequently, the imbalance between the two phases of liver detoxification causes an accumulation of toxins in the body, with the consequent adverse health effects. Among the resulting diseases from alterations in liver detoxification, it is worth highlighting: multiple chemical sensitivities, adverse drug reactions.

Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress appears when intracellular oxide-reduction homeostasis is disturbed. This imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants is responsible for premature aging and is involved in numerous neurological diseases. The different evaluation profiles of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation analyze the main reactions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in our body, as well as various pro-oxidant factors and different antioxidant mechanisms.

Genetic Polymorphisms Study

Different genetic polymorphisms can influence brain neurometabolism. Their identification offers us the opportunity to intervene from epigenetics, with diet changes and specific natural supplements, to adapt our metabolism to these inherited polymorphisms.

The cycles of methylation, synthesis and degradation of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, as well as the glutamate / GABA balance have a decisive influence on different pathologies and neurobiological syndromes.

We evaluate genetic polymorphisms of the methylation cycle and metabolism of adrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonin neurotransmitters, sulfur metabolism, among others: MTHFR, COMT, MAO-A, ADRA2A, ADRB1, 5HTR2A, DAT1, MTRR, CBS.

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